As a main source of food products, the Palestinian agricultural sector covers the bulk of domestic demand (providing food for about 4 million people in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip). Hebron is one of the largest governorates in the West Bank in terms of area and population, and the second largest agricultural area after Jenin. Existing land and vegetation GIS (geographic information system) maps show that the total area of Hebron is 1067539 dunums, including 530.632 dunums as agricultural land.
Agricultural activities (including livestock sector and plant production) in Hebron differ by region. In rain-fed areas, agricultural products involve fruit, field crops and forages. In irrigated areas, farmers mainly grow vegetables. Livestock, on the other hand, involves breeding cows, sheep, goats, poultry and bees.
Hebron lies in an area with the largest eastern and western underground water aquifers. The governorate is the most arid and most populous region in the West Bank, especially in the southern and south-eastern regions with many rural communities. The main sources of drinking water in the province of Hebron are home wells, springs, agricultural wells and the Israeli water company (Mekorot). The Municipality of Hebron runs three groundwater wells: Al-Fawar No. 1, Al-Fawar No. 2, and Safi. Other four groundwater wells (Samou', Herodion No. 1, Herodion No. 2 and Herodion No. 3) are supervised directly by the West Bank Water Authority, but they are run and maintained by Mekorot. In a bid to overcome the water crisis in Hebron and Bethlehem, nine groundwater wells were drilled in the southern West Bank, and they are owned and run by the Palestinian Water Authority. There are also about communal 89 wells and 63 springs in Hebron used for irrigation and domestic purposes.